Education and literacy
The literacy rate in all tehsils under SDA has more than 70% literate population, except for Chhachhrauli which has a rate of 59%. This is slightly better when compared with the state literacy rate of 68%. The literacy rate among women is relatively low, ranging from 63.4% in Yamunanagar to 67.4% in Ambala, which is nevertheless better than the state average.
The water supply schemes set up by the Public Health Department have been functioning in the plains, but with less capacity than designed. While the norms of stand posts and hand pumps are followed to a large extent, the per capita availability has been less than 30 litres per day. In all, 1021 piped water schemes and 834 hand pumps were installed in the Shivalik area, reportedly covering roughly 65% of the population.
Our Land Resources
The land use data indicates that the region has about 14.5% of geographic area under forests and 66.2% under cultivation (Table 2.9). District Panchkula has only 23.1% under cultivation, as compared to the state average of 75%. The area under wastelands and public pastures is negligible. The area not available for cultivation ranges from 9.4% in Ambala district to 17.3% in Panchkula district. Most of the cultivated lands have good fertile loam soils of varying depth.
Our Forest Wealth
The Shivalik hills are characterized by tropical dry deciduous forest. Valuable timber species have been virtually extirpated. As per the FSI Report 2003, Panchkula has a forest cover of 40.53%, Ambala 2.22% and Yamunanagar 11.31%. While Panchkula recorded substantial increase (42%) in forest cover in 2003 from 2001, the other two districts have shown a decline of 13% and 24%.
The Shivalik region has 66.2% of its geographic area under cultivation and 88.3% of it under irrigation. Similar to the situation in Haryana state, the Shivalik area has maximum acreage under wheat, which accounts for 48% in the state of Haryana and 46%, 43% and 37% of the total sown area in Ambala, Panchkula and Yamunanagar, respectively. Similarly, 40 % of net sown area in Ambala and 31% in Yamunanagar is under rice cultivation, wheareas Panchkula has only 17%. Around 25% of the net sown area in Panchkula is under maize. What is another popular crop occupying 39%-45% of net sown area in these districts.
Livestock in Animals
Livestock rearing has been an important component of the farming systems of the Shivaliks, as well as the State, since time immemorial. Besides an insurance against vagaries of nature, this activity is certain pursuit to generate extra income. Shivaliks account for 45% of the state's poultry population, 13.9% of cattle population and 8.1% of buffalo population.
Roads & Road Network
The overall road network and coverage in the Shivalik region is better compared to the overall Haryana State . Haryana has an average of 52 km of metalled road per 100 square km of area and the districts of Ambala, Panchkula and Yamunanagar have 72 km, 63km and 64km, respectively. The field survey, however, revealed that the access road conditions from villages to nearest market place are in poor condition of maintenance. Except for Sadaura in Yamunanagar, Naraingarh in Ambala and Pinjore in Panchkula, all other blocks have average or poor condition of roads.